The Science of CBD

The Biology

In our bodies, we have a biochemical communication system known as the Endocannabinoid System.

This system helps us regulate our physical and emotional health through neurological invigoration.

How CBD Works

CBD products contain cannabinoid compounds that stimulate the receptors of the Endocannabinoid System, referred to as CB1 and CB2 receptors.

When we consume these compounds, our CB1 and CB2 receptors promote neural sensitivity and accordingly, increase the effectiveness our the chemical messengers in our bodies, known as neurotransmitters.

What happens

The magic of CBD in comparison to THC is that it doesn’t act directly with the CB1 and CBD2 receptors. Rather CBD influences them and other receptors in the brain and body indirectly, meaning you don’t get the same psychoactive effects you do with THC.

CBD works in two main ways:
First, it has the ability to turn ‘orphan receptors’ into active or inactive receptors of G-proteins, according to the need of the body.

Second, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. An action that is considered to be responsible for its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects.


It is important to note that study into the effects of CBD products across a range of conditions remains in their infancy, however, large parts of the clinical community have heralded CBD as a huge forward shift in the way we could treat medical conditions in the future. So, while the indications are unanimously positive, as a responsible retailer we feel it is important to help you understand that this is a young and extremely exciting industry that is gaining further credibility, day in day out.

Conditions that CBD has been used to treat



Controlled studies have shown promising results for CBD in relation to the treatment of cancer patients, with those using a combination of CBD and THC showing relevant improvements in survival compared with placebo. This is especially positive given that in addition to relevant improvements, cannabinoid medicine has generally been well tolerated.

In the same studies, CBD was found to exhibit “pro‐apoptotic and anti‐proliferative actions” in different types of tumors, thus leading researchers to conclude that “evidence is emerging to suggest that CBD is a potent inhibitor of both cancer growth and spread.”

And while these trials are still in the early stages, it is widely believed that we can be optimistic about the benefits and future outlook when it comes to using CBD products in the treatment of cancer.



Current evidence indicates that CBD has huge potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders including:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Panic Disorder
  • Social Anxiety Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

More info: and



The therapeutic benefits of CBD products on epilepsy appear to be mounting.
Medical reviews published in 2017 and 2018 incorporating numerous clinical trials concluded that cannabidiol is an effective treatment for certain types of childhood epilepsy.

An orally administered cannabidiol solution was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2018 as a treatment for two rare forms of childhood epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.

Pain & Inflammation

Pain & Inflammation

While the data supporting this claim is still in its infancy, an anecdotal view strongly suggests two instances of pain and inflammation CBD products appear to be very effective.

1. Neuropathic Pain
Evidence collected in a 2006 research review found that CBD/THC buccal spray could be effective in treating neuropathic pain in Multiple Sclerosis sufferers, with the caveat that the review was based on a small number of trials and patients.

2. Intestinal or Bowel Disease:
Studies into the effects of CBD products on pain and inflammation in relation to intestinal or bowel disease have concluded that CBD could be a “promising therapeutic agent” in the treatment if inflammatory bowel disorders.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases

Small scale studies have highlighted a “marked improvement” of between 12 to 15 percent across three distinct inflammatory markers for heart disease; homocysteine, c-reactive protein, and EST, all of which could point to a reduced risk of heart disease.

Antipsychotic Effects

Antipsychotic Effects

A 2015 systematic review in Schizophrenia Research indicated that CBD could be helpful in the management of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. According to researchers, the first small-scale clinical studies were promising – both with regards to the effectiveness and the safety of the practice –, but larger randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm these benefits.

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Opiate Addiction

Opiate Addiction

More Effective Treatment at Lower Doses:
An independent study by UCSF reported that cannabinoids appear to make opioid treatment more effective at lower doses and with fewer side effects. This is supported by numerous observational studies which suggest that some patients voluntarily decrease the number of opiates they are using—or go off opiates completely—when they use them in conjunction with cannabis.

Reduced Symptoms of Opioid Withdrawal:
Research also suggests that cannabis can help treat the symptoms of opioid withdrawal: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, muscle spasms, anxiety, agitation, restlessness, insomnia, and minor symptoms like a runny nose and sweating.

Reduced Risk of Relapse:
Recent animal studies, have shown that the heroin-seeking behavior of self-administering rats decreased when the animals were given CBD, while Preclinical data further suggests that CBD inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of opiates by disrupting the reconsolidation of cue-induced memories that reinforce addiction.

Mental Focus

Mental Focus

Cannabinoid molecules influence receptors throughout the body, impacting their ability to uptake neurotransmitters. Essentially, CBD has the ability to make these receptors more sensitive and in turn, our responses more acute. 

In relation to focus, CBD appears to have a direct impact on the production and release of serotonin. Seratonin is a neurotransmitter released during sleeping, eating, and digestion, that helps regulate our emotions. Too-low levels of serotonin can result in anxiety and depression, symptoms of which can be poor concentration and the inability to slow down your thoughts or focus on one thing. So when you increase the amount of serotonin being absorbed by the body, as CBD helps to do, you decrease those symptoms—often leading a more settled emotional state and better focus.

Dopamine, on the other hand, is a neurotransmitter linked to pleasure and motivation, what attracts us and holds our attention, and how we can plan and accomplish things. As with serotonin, dopamine shortages can lead to anxiety and depression, but also to a couple of disorders heavily centered on focus: ADHD and ADD—which is where certain research comes in.

While to date there have still been no clinical trials of CBD’s effect on ADHD or ADD on a broad scale, there is significant anecdotal evidence that CBD helps decrease hyperactive behavior and increase focus by way of affecting dopamine reuptake.

Dosing with CBD

No two people’s endocannabinoid systems are the same, so when it comes to dosing it is important to be patient and work towards finding what dose is right for you.

Working up to the right dose:

The best way to find a proper dosage is to start low and keep adjusting. For those new to cannabidiol products, we would suggest dosing at 5mg intervals and taking notes as to any significant changes in effect until relief is consistent.

For those who are used to consuming cannabis products, starting at a higher dose of around 25mg may be more beneficial, with the same addition of 5mg increments until a consistent relief is established.

Dosing Dependent on Purpose:

As well as tolerance, dosing will also vary according to the type of relief being sought. Many people fail to understand that to benefit properly from CBD products, you need to be patient and deliver it across a consistent period of time.

CBD Dosing Examples:

Chronic Pain: 2.5-20mg for 25 days

Epilepsy: 200-300mg up to 4.5 months

Huntingtons Disease-related issues: 10mg/kg for 6 weeks

Sleep Disorders: 40-160mg

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms: 2.5-120mg THC-CBD combo for 2-15 weeks

Glaucoma: 20-40mg (Doses over 40 mg may actually increase eye pressure)